亚博体育竞技

A Survey Of Moon Maps Since the 17th Century – The Awl

Howdoyoumapsomething238,856milesaway?

Youcan’tjustsendoutateamofsurveyors。

Atleast,youcouldn’tuntilrelativelyrecently。

Beforethen,lunarcartographers(technically,selenographers)couldonlyrelyontelescopesandtheirownartisticabilitytodrawadetailedportraitofthelunarface。

Theymanagedsomeprettydazzling?

results。

Oneofthefirstwidelyseenimagesofthemoon(asidefromtheIRLversion),thedrawingatleftwasincludedbyGalileoinabookpublishedin1610。

Whilehedidn’ttechnicallymapthemoon,theseobservationswereamongthefirsttotakenotethatthemoonwasnotaperfectsmoothmagicsky-ballbutarough,irregularlysurfacedrockwithvalleysandmountainsandotherchartablefeatures。

1645?

—?

VAN?

LANGREN

Thefirstformalattemptatmappingthemoon?

—?

thatis,onethatdidn’tjusttakenoteofcuriouscratersandrivetingridges,butattemptedtodefineallfeaturesonagrid?

—?

happenedonlyafewdecadeslater,in1645。

DutchastronomerMichaelvanLangrenattemptedadetailedstudyofthemoon’svisiblesurfaceduringdifferentphases,undertakenasawayofdetermininglongitudehereonEarth。

Hegaveuponthis(incrediblyunsuccessful)questearly,butnotbeforenamingmanyoftheobservedfeatures。

MostofhisnameswereinhonorofCatholicsaintsandchurchfiguresoftheday,buthedidmanagetofindacratertocall“Langrenus,”afterhimself。

Hilariously,itisoneofonlyahandfulofhisnamesthatstuck?

—?

youcanseeitontheeasternedgeoftheMareFecunditatis。

(MapcourtesyofUniversiteitsbibliotheek,Leiden,via;Langrenusclose-upviaWikipedia。

)

1647?

—?

HEVELIUS

Twoyearslater,VanLangren’sPolishrival,JohannesHevelius,publishedamorecompletedescriptionofthemoon(literally,itbearsthetitleSelenography,oraDescriptionoftheMoon)intheformofalunaratlas。

Thetwoyearsofextraeffortwasworthit:Heveliusisrememberedasthefatheroflunartopography。

Thisyearmarksthe400thanniversaryofhisbirth;PolandiscurrentlyenjoyingayearofexhibitionsandtributestoJohannesHeveliusaspartofRokJanaHeweliusz,whichyoucanreadmoreabouthere(ifyouhappentoknowPolishorenjoytheGoogleTranslateinterface)。

Hismaps,ofcourse,hadcompletelydifferenttoponyms。

UnlikeVanLangren,henamedlunarfeaturesafterwhatterrestrialfeatureshethoughtthemtoresemble。

LikeVanLengren,onlyascantfewofhissurvive,includingmoontain(nottheofficialterm)rangesnamedafterthePyrenees,theApenninesandtheAlps。

TheMoonAlpsevenhavetheirownMoonAlpineValley。

(ImagecourtesyoftheLibraryofCongress,via。

)

1651?

—?

RICCIOLI

EnterpriestGiovanniRiccioli。

NotlongafterVanLengrenandHevelius’publications,Riccioliputouthisownwork。

Itdidn’treallycontainanyactualnewfeatures,anditwasn’treallyhiswork(itwasdrawnbyFrancescoGrimaldi),whatmakesitworthincludinghereishisnamescheme。

AllLatinized,theseasarenamedforvariousconditionsgenerallyattributedtothemoon(tranquility,fertility,rain)andthelandsfortheoppositesofthoseconditions(vivaciousness,sterility,heat)。

Forindividualcraters,Ricciolidividedthemoonintoaseriesofoctantsandgroupednamesbytyperegionally;forexample,cratersnamedafterscholarsaretypicallyfoundallinthesamegeneralarea。

Most,butcertainlynotall,ofhisnamesarestillinplacetoday。

Takealookatthispicture,takenbyRanger8in1965about4minutesbeforeitsmashedintothesurface?

—?

that’stheSeaofTranquility,MareTranquillitatus,314yearsafteritwaschristenedby?

Riccoli。

(RicciolimapcourtesyofMuseoGalileo;Ranger8imagecourtesyofNASA。

)

1679?

—?

CASSINI

The17thcenturywasagreattimetobealiveifyouwereinterestedinstaringatthemoon?

—?

truthbetold,moonmapswereprobablymoreaccuratethanearthmapsatthispoint。

CheckouthowmuchtheartofseleographyadvancedbetweenGalileoandCassini,whopublishedthismapin1679。

Intriguedbyanoddlyshapedcraterrim,heincludedasmalldrawingofawoman’sfaceinprofile。

CanyoufindCassini’s‘MoonMaiden’?

Here’saguideifyoucan’t。

(ImageviaMuseoGalileo。

)

1748?

—?

MAYER

VanLengrenmayhavebeenthefirsttouseagridforlunarcartography,butTobiasMayerwasthefirsttogivethemoonproperlatitudeandlongitudeandtakelibrationintoaccount。

See,thoughthefarsideofthemoonwouldnotbevisibleuntiltheSovietssentasatellitearoundinthe1960s,slightlymorethanhalfofthemoonisobservednightly。

Themoonisnotjustaflatcirculardiscbutaroundthree-dimensionalobjectbeinghitbylightfromarotatingEar…。

ohhere,justlookatthisanimation。

Ican’texplainitanybetter。

Anyway:MayerusedhislibrationcalculationsinordertoproduceaseriesofincrediblyaccuratemapsofthesurfaceofthemoonduringalunareclipseonAugust8,1748。

Allofthataside,itisonegorgeouspieceofcartographicart。

(ImagecourtesyoftheBibliothèquenationaledeFrance。

)

Let’sleapforwardhere,forthenextbigdevelopmentsinlunarcartographydidn’thappenfor200years。

However,don’ttakethistomeantherewasatwo-centurygapinmoonmapping,northattheadvancesmadeinthoseyearsareforgettable。

However,goingthrougheachminutetip-toeforwardonlytoendwith“andthenwelandedonit!

Goodnight!

”?

—?

thisisnotthehillIwanttoboreyouon。

Thenextmajoradvancementsinlunarcartographycameduringthemid-20th-centuryspaceracebetweentheUSSRandUSA。

1959?

—?

THE?

SOVIETS

TheSovietswereuptherefirst,in1959,sendingupLuna1,thefirstman-madeobjecttoleavetheEarth’satmosphereandneverreturn。

Unfortunately,itmisseditstarget,andaccidentallybecamethefirstman-madeobjecttoorbittheSun。

TheSoviets,neveronestomissanopportunity,rechristenedLuna-1as“Mechta”anddeclaredthe800-poundsphereanewplanet。

Luna-2succeededinhittingthemoon,and(asseenhere)Luna-3sentbackthefirstimagesofthefarsideofthemoon,somethingpreviouslyonlywonderedabout。

Surprise!

Nomoonyetionthatside,either。

(Frames27and28ofLuna-3’sfilmcourtesyofMentalLandscape。

)

1966?

—?

THEAMERICANS

Between1966and’68,theAmericans,feelingasthoughmerelylookingatthemoonwasn’tenough(well,theyfeltalotofthings,butyouknow,ColdWar),launchedsevenindividualspacecraft?

—?

theJetPropulsionLaboratory’sSurveyorprogram?

—?

tothesurfaceofthemoontotransmitphotographsandsoildata,withthegoaloftestingthefeasibilityofamannedlanding。

Astheprogramdiscovered,andafactofwhichyouareprobablyaware:totallyokaytolandonthemoon!

NosignsofMoonYetianywhere,evenafterprettycloseinvestigation!

Surveyor3,whichscoutedtheMareCogitum,wascloseenoughtotheApollo12landingsitethatastronautswereabletoambleovertoitandremoveparts;thecamera,whichsentbackover6,000imagesofthesurroundingarea,isnowondisplayattheSmithsonianAirSpacemuseum。

Theaboveimageisfromthelastoftheprogram,Surveyor7。

CloseuppanoramaslikethesewereusedbyNASAfor,amongotherthings,judginggroundquality。

NoneoftheApollomissionscameevenclosetothecrater-filledareawhereSurveyor7toucheddown?

—?

toorisky。

(ImagecourtesyofNASA;others?

here。

)

2010?

—?

NASA

They’restillmappingthemoon,bytheway,eventhoughtherearen’tconcreteplanstoreturn。

Clementine,launchedin1994,orbitedthemoonfortwomonthsandimagedeverysurfacewithavarietyofinstruments,includinghighresolutioncameraequipmentandLIDAR。

Morerecently,NASAsentuptheLunarCraterObervationandandSensingSatellite,orLCROSS,tosmashintothemoon’ssouthpolarareaandobservethedustplumeresultingfromthecollision,alowcostwaytocheckforpolarice,hydrocarbons,orotherhydratedmaterials。

Andjustlastyear,NASAembarkeduponanunprecedentedmission:a100%completemapofthemoon。

Previousmappingeffortshaveonlyincludedthepartswecansee,buttheLunarReconnaissanceOrbiter,launchedatthesametimeasLCROSS,isalreadyprovidingGPS-qualitytopographicaldataforregionsofthemoonthatJohannHeveliusandhiscontemporariesonlydreamedabout。

NASAhasputoutavideodisplayingsomeoftheLRO’strulystunningaccomplishmentssofar。

Themissionwasasuccessaswell:themoonhaswater!

It’sintheformoficeatthesouthernpole。

(ImagecourtesyofNASA/GSFC/MIT/SVS。

)

MOONCRASHES!

Themoon’sseasaren’tfilledwithwater,butyouknowwhatyouwillfindintheseas?

Andalsoincraters,onridges,and,basically,anywhere?

Remnantsofthingsthathavecrashedintothemoon!

NotallofthesewereasintentionalasLCROSS,either。

AmongmanmadedebrisliketheLunarRoverliedozensofbustedlunarprojects。

Likemost,theAmericanseriesoflaunchesknownastheRangerprojecttransmittedimagesbacktoEarthuptotenthsofasecondbeforeimpact。

Hereareafewofthelastthingstheyrecorded。

Ranger7’sfinalimage,July311964。

Theseimagesareincomplete?

—?

thestaticshowswherethetransmissionended。

(CourtesyofNASA;viaWikimedia。

)

Ranger8’sfinalimage,ahalf-secondbeforeimpactonFebruary20,1965。

(Courtesyof?

NASA。

)

Ranger9’sfinalimage,tenthsofasecondbeforeimpactonMarch24,1965。

(Courtesyof?

NASA。

)

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